Lessons Learned in Coupling Atmospheric Models Across Scales for Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy

Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosovic, Larry Berg, Colleen Kaul, Matthew Churchfield, Jeffrey Mirocha, Dries Allaerts, Thomas Brummet, Shannon Davis, Amy DeCastro, Susan Dettling, Caroline Draxl, David Gagne, Patrick Hawbecker, Pankaj Jha, Timothy Juliano, William Lassman, Eliot Quon, Raj Rai, Michael RobinsonWilliam Shaw, Regis Thedin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


The Mesoscale to Microscale Coupling team, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) initiative, has studied various important challenges related to coupling mesoscale models to microscale models for the use case of wind energy development and operation. Several coupling methods and techniques for generating turbulence at the microscale that is subgrid to the mesoscale have been evaluated for a variety of cases. Case studies included flat-terrain, complex-terrain, and offshore environments. Methods were developed to bridge the terra incognita, which scales from about 100 m through the depth of the boundary layer. The team used wind-relevant metrics and archived code, case information, and assessment tools and is making those widely available. Lessons learned and discerned best practices are described in the context of the cases studied for the purpose of enabling further deployment of wind energy.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1251-1275
Number of pages25
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5000-84474 for article as published in Wind Energy Science Discussions

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-87590


  • atmospheric science
  • downscaling
  • large-eddy simulation
  • machine learning
  • mesoscale-microscale coupling
  • numerical weather prediction
  • wind energy


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