Lessons Learned in Coupling Atmospheric Models Across Scales for Onshore and Offshore Wind Energy

Sue Ellen Haupt, Branko Kosovic, Larry Berg, Colleen Kaul, Matthew Churchfield, Jeffrey Mirocha, Dries Allaerts, Thomas Brummet, Shannon Davis, Amy DeCastro, Sue Dettling, Caroline Draxl, David John Gagne, Patrick Hawbecker, Pankaj Jha, Timothy Juliano, William Lassman, Eliot Quon, Raj Rai, Michael RobinsonWilliam Shaw, Regis Thedin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


The Mesoscale to Microscale Coupling team, part of the U.S. Department of Energy Atmosphere to electrons (A2e) initiative, has studied various important challenges related to coupling mesoscale models to microscale models for the use case of wind energy development and operation. Several coupling methods and techniques for generating turbulence at the microscale that is subgrid to the mesoscale have been evaluated for a variety of cases. Case studies included flat terrain, complex terrain, and offshore environments. Methods were developed to bridge the terra incognita, that scale from about 100 m through the depth of the boundary layer. The team used wind-relevant metrics and archived code, case information, and assessment tools and are making those widely available. Lessons learned and discerned best practices are described in the context of the cases studied for the purpose of enabling further deployment of wind energy.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages36
JournalWind Energy Science Discussions
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5000-87590 for final paper as published in Wind Energy Science

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-84474


  • atmospheric science
  • downscaling
  • large-eddy simulation
  • machine learning
  • mesoscale-microscale coupling
  • numerical weather prediction
  • wind energy


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