Levelized Cost of Charging of Extreme Fast Charging with Stationary LMO/LTO Batteries: Article No. 110568

Darice Guittet, Paul Gasper, Matt Shirk, Matt Mitchell, Madeline Gilleran, Eric Bonnema, Kandler Smith, Partha Mishra, Margaret Mann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus Citations


Extreme DC fast charging for electric vehicles (EVs) could be competitive with the internal combustion engine refueling experience and enable longer-distance travel, which could help with EV adoption and decarbonization, but these systems have high capital costs and extremely variable high-power demands. Behind-the-meter systems (BTMS) could support extreme-fast-charging (XFC) stations to increase nationwide adoption of EVs. This study examines the optimal break-even levelized cost of charging (LCOC) across 96 BTMS scenarios to enable low-wait XFC stations providing 200 miles of charge in 10 min. This research simulates LCOC via synthetic XFC-capable EV loads, machine-learned battery life models from testing data, and nonlinear optimal controls, co-minimizing complex utility costs and battery replacements. An aggregate optimal BTMS design treating each EV load as equal likely gives an optimal LCOC per utility rate, the average of which is $0.59/kWh. In addition, the sensitivity of optimal and off-optimal design factors, the long-life LMO/LTO chemistry, and optimized controls are analyzed. The battery control model, based on battery stressors to compare chemistries, optimizes LMO/LTO resting state of charge and cycle depth without compromising cost reduction, which enables greater flexibility in operation. The LCOC savings due to replacement reduction are small, up to $0.035/kWh (6%), with an average of $0.02/kWh (3.5%). Compared with gasoline stations, the aggregate XFC station design achieves comparable speed, experience of service, and cost at $3.81/gal gasoline, showing that EVs can replace gasoline vehicles even for longer-distance travel.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Energy Storage
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-7A40-85042


  • battery
  • battery life models
  • cost of charging
  • critical battery materials
  • electric vehicles
  • extreme fast charging
  • lithium-ion
  • machine learning
  • optimal control
  • utility tariff


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