Liquid-Phase Deposition of CIS Thin Layers: Final Report, February 2003--July 2005

    Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


    The goal of this project was to fabricate single-phase CIS (a-Cu-In-Se, stoichiometric composition: CuInSe2) thin films for photovoltaic applications from a liquid phase - a Cu-In-Se melt of appropriate composition. This approach of liquid-phase deposition (LPD) is based on the new phase diagram we have established for Cu-In-Se, the first complete equilibrium phase diagram of this system. Theliquidus projection exhibits four composition fields in which the primary solid phase, i.e., the first solid material that forms on cooling down from an entirely liquid state, is a-CuInSe2. Remarkably, none of the four composition fields is anywhere near the stoichiometric composition (CuInSe2) of a-CuInSe2. The results demonstrate that the proposed technique is indeed capable of producing filmswith a particularly large grain size and a correspondingly low density of grain boundaries. To obtain films sufficiently thin for solar cell applications and with a sufficiently smooth surface, it is advantageous to employ a sliding boat mechanism. Future work on liquid-phase deposition of CIS should focus on the interaction between the melt and the substrate surface, the resulting CISinterfaces, the surface morphology of the LPD-grown films, and, of course, the electronic properties of the material.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages27
    StatePublished - 2006

    Bibliographical note

    Work performed by Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/SR-520-39341


    • copper indium diselenide (CIS)
    • electronic properties
    • grain boundary (GBS)
    • grain size
    • liquid-phase deposition
    • sliding-boat reactor
    • thin films


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