Lithium Loss, Resistance Growth, Electrode Expansion, Gas Evolution, and Li Plating: Analyzing Performance and Failure of Commercial Large-Format NMC-Gr Lithium-Ion Pouch Cells: Article No. 234494

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Abstract

Analysis of the performance evolution and failure mechanisms of commercial Li-ion batteries is crucial for improving testing methods, accurately modeling battery performance, and ensuring safe battery operation. Here, we present the results of a 2-year aging study conducted on commercial large-format LiNiMnCoO2-graphite pouch cells. Loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and loss of positive electrode active material (LAMPE) are shown to dominate capacity fade, as quantified by differential voltage-capacity analysis; only a small amount of LAMPE was measured in extracted electrode material, indicating that LAMPE in full cells was due to electrode dry-out. Resistance evolution, observed by direct current pulses and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analyzed using the distribution of relaxation times, shows complex trends. Particle cracking and electrode expansion is theorized to cause most changes to resistance. Post-mortem measurements reveal a 10% increase in electrode stack thickness and substantial gas generation, with lithium plating observed in extreme cycling conditions, causing large resistance increases. Circumstantial evidence for self-discharge via redox shuttle, which decomposes the electrolyte, is shown. Overall, electrolyte stability was determined to be the limiting factor for cell lifetime. The impacts of many degradation mechanisms on diagnostic signals substantially overlap, making it challenging to monitor cell health and safety.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume604
DOIs
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-89744

Keywords

  • battery degradation
  • differential voltage-capacity
  • electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
  • electrolyte decomposition
  • failure analysis
  • lithium-ion battery

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