Low Temperature Perovskite Solar Cells with an Evaporated TiO2 Compact Layer for Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

Paul Ndione, Alexander Bett, Patricia Schulze, Kristina Winkler, Jacopo Gasparetto, Martin Bivour, Andreas Hinsch, Markus Kohlstadt, Seunghun Lee, Simone Mastroianni, Laura Mundt, Markus Mundus, Christian Reichel, Armin Richter, Clemens Veit, Karl Wienands, Uli Wurfel, Welmoed Veurman, Stefan Glunz, Martin HermleJan Goldschmidt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus Citations


Silicon-based tandem solar cells can overcome the efficiency limit of single junction silicon solar cells. Perovskite solar cells are particularly promising as a top cell in monolithic tandem devices due to their rapid development towards high efficiencies, a tunable band gap with a sharp optical absorption edge and a simple production process. In monolithic tandem devices, the perovskite solar cell is deposited directly on the silicon cell, requiring low-temperature processes (< 200°C) to maintain functionality of under-lying layers of the silicon cell in case of highly efficient silicon hetero-junction (SHJ) bottom solar cell. In this work, we present a complete low-temperature process for perovskite solar cells including a mesoporous titanium oxide (TiO2) scaffold - a structure yielding the highest efficiencies for single-junction perovskite solar cells. We show that evaporation of the compact TiO2 hole blocking layer and ultra-violet (UV) curing for the mesoporous TiO2 layer allows for good performance, comparable to high-temperature (> 500°C) processes. With both manufacturing routes, we obtain short-circuit current densities (JSC) of about 20 mA/cm, open-circuit voltages (VOC) over 1 V, fill factors (FF) between 0.7 and 0.8 and efficiencies (η) of more than 15%. We further show that the evaporated TiO2 layer is suitable for the application in tandem devices. The series resistance of the layer itself and the contact resistance to an indium doped tin oxide (ITO) interconnection layer between the two sub-cells are low. In addition, the low parasitic absorption for wavelengths above the perovskite band gap allow a higher absorption in the silicon bottom solar cell, which is essential to achieve high tandem efficiencies.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)567-576
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy Procedia
StatePublished - 2017
Event7th International Conference on Silicon Photovoltaics, SiliconPV 2017 - Freiburg, Germany
Duration: 3 Apr 20175 Apr 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5J00-70501


  • low-temperature process
  • Perovskite solar cell
  • TiO/ITO resistance


Dive into the research topics of 'Low Temperature Perovskite Solar Cells with an Evaporated TiO2 Compact Layer for Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this