Low-Temperature Surface Preparation and Epitaxial Growth of ZnS and Cu2ZnSnS4 on ZnS(110) and GaP(100)

Steven Harvey, Glenn Teeter, Helio Moutinho, Andrew Norman, Samual Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We give a summary of the low-temperature preparation methods of ZnS(1 1 0) and GaP(1 0 0) crystals for epitaxial growth of ZnS and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) via molecular beam epitaxy. Substrates were prepared for epitaxial growth by means of room-temperature aqueous surface treatments and subsequent ultra-high vacuum transfer to the deposition system. Epitaxial growth of ZnS was successful at 500 K on both ZnS(1 1 0) and GaP(1 0 0) as only single domains were observed with electron backscatter diffraction; furthermore, transmission electron microscopy measurements confirmed an epitaxial interface. Epitaxial growth of CZTS was successful on ZnS at 700 K. However, epitaxial growth was not possible on GaP at 700 K due to GaxSy formation, which significantly degraded the quality of the GaP crystal surface. Although CZTS was grown epitaxially on ZnS, growth of multiple crystallographic domains remains a problem that could inherently limit the viability of epitaxial CZTS for model system studies.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)89-95
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Crystal Growth
StatePublished - 15 Nov 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Elsevier B.V.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-68184


  • molecular beam epitaxy
  • semiconducting quaternary alloys
  • solar cells
  • sulfides
  • zinc compounds


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