Low Threshold Voltages Electrochemically Drive Gold Migration in Halide Perovskite Devices

Ross Kerner, Lianfeng Zhao, Steven Harvey, Joseph Berry, Jeffrey Schwartz, Barry Rand

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus Citations


The constituent ions of halide perovskite materials are mobile in the solid state and known to participate in reduction/oxidation reactions. Yet few parameters related to electrochemical processes occurring within devices have been carefully determined. Here, we characterize such reactions in model MAPbI3perovskite devices, and we quantify threshold voltages for key reactions. Gold is oxidized and mobilized under nitrogen, in the dark, at the MAPbI3/Au interface at 0.8 V. When this interface is buffered with the organic hole transport material (HTM), 2,2′,7,7′-Tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9′-spirobifluorene, MAPbI3begins to degrade at 1.2 V; degradation liberates ions that subsequently enable Au migration. Thresholds are insensitive to MAPbI3thickness or choice of organic HTM or oxide cathode, which suggests that these reactions are driven electrochemically; the electric field across the device is less important. These results have profound implications for understanding in operando degradation pathways of optoelectronic perovskite devices that are varied in terms of interface structures, active material compositions, and ranges of external stressors.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3352-3356
Number of pages5
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number11
StatePublished - 13 Nov 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5K00-77042


  • electrochemical processes
  • perovskite


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