Machine-Learning from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Transcriptomes Reveals its Transcriptional Regulatory Network

Hyun Gyu Lim, Kevin Rychel, Anand V. Sastry, Gayle J. Bentley, Joshua Mueller, Heidi S. Schindel, Peter E. Larsen, Philip D. Laible, Adam M. Guss, Wei Niu, Christopher W. Johnson, Gregg T. Beckham, Adam M. Feist, Bernhard O. Palsson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus Citations


Bacterial gene expression is orchestrated by numerous transcription factors (TFs). Elucidating how gene expression is regulated is fundamental to understanding bacterial physiology and engineering it for practical use. In this study, a machine-learning approach was applied to uncover the genome-scale transcriptional regulatory network (TRN) in Pseudomonas putida KT2440, an important organism for bioproduction. We performed independent component analysis of a compendium of 321 high-quality gene expression profiles, which were previously published or newly generated in this study. We identified 84 groups of independently modulated genes (iModulons) that explain 75.7% of the total variance in the compendium. With these iModulons, we (i) expand our understanding of the regulatory functions of 39 iModulon associated TFs (e.g., HexR, Zur) by systematic comparison with 1993 previously reported TF-gene interactions; (ii) outline transcriptional changes after the transition from the exponential growth to stationary phases; (iii) capture group of genes required for utilizing diverse carbon sources and increased stationary response with slower growth rates; (iv) unveil multiple evolutionary strategies of transcriptome reallocation to achieve fast growth rates; and (v) define an osmotic stimulon, which includes the Type VI secretion system, as coordination of multiple iModulon activity changes. Taken together, this study provides the first quantitative genome-scale TRN for P. putida KT2440 and a basis for a comprehensive understanding of its complex transcriptome changes in a variety of physiological states.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)297-310
Number of pages14
JournalMetabolic Engineering
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2A00-82394


  • Independent component analysis
  • Machine learning
  • Pseudomonas putida
  • Systems biology
  • Transcriptome


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