Materials Used in U.S. Wind Energy Technologies: Quantities and Availability for Two Future Scenarios

Annika Eberle, Aubryn Cooperman, Julien Walzberg, Dylan Hettinger, Richard Tusing, Derek Berry, Daniel Inman, Senu Sirnivas, Melinda Marquis, Brandon Ennis, Evan Sproul, Ryan Clarke, Joshua Paquette, Thomas Hendrickson, William Morrow, Sujit Das, Matthew Korey, Parans Paranthaman, Robert Norris, Lillie GhobrialSridhar Seetharaman, Yuri Korobeinikov

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Achieving a net zero emissions economy by 2050 will require at least a three-fold increase in the current rate of U.S. wind energy deployment. The increased demand for raw and processed materials needed to fulfill this goal could pose challenges for overall resource utilization and physical materials availability. To evaluate material requirements, we used the a new tool, the Renewable Energy Materials Properties Database, to analyze the potential material demands for wind energy under two future scenarios: Conservative (low wind deployment and no material-related innovations) and Advanced (high wind deployment and limited material-related innovations). This report documents the analysis results and provides a high-level overview of potential supply chain constraints. The results from this study allow researchers, analysts, policy makers, and the public to understand potential challenges for physical materials availability for wind energy technologies and identify opportunities for new technology development that might mitigate resource constraints.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages102
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A20-81483


  • critical materials
  • critical minerals
  • database
  • life cycle inventory
  • material demand
  • supply chain constraints
  • technology innovations
  • vulnerable materials
  • wind energy technology


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