Mechanisms of Flame Stabilization and Blowout in a Reacting Turbulent Hydrogen Jet in Cross-Flow

Hemanth Kolla, Ray W. Grout, Andrea Gruber, Jacqueline H. Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

78 Scopus Citations


The mechanisms contributing to flame stabilization and blowout in a nitrogen-diluted hydrogen transverse jet in a turbulent boundary layer cross-flow (JICF) are investigated using three-dimensional direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed chemistry. Non-reacting JICF DNS were performed to understand the relative magnitude and physical location of low velocity regions on the leeward side of the fuel jet where a flame can potentially anchor. As the injection angle is reduced from 90° to 70°, the low velocity region was found to diminish significantly, both in terms of physical extent and magnitude, and hence, its ability to provide favorable conditions for flame anchoring and stabilization are greatly reduced. In the reacting JICF DNS a stable flame is observed for 90° injection angle and, on average, the flame root is in the vicinity of low velocity magnitude and stoichiometric mixture. When the injection angle is smoothly transitioned to 75° a transient flame blowout is observed. Ensemble averaged quantities on the flame base reveal two phases of the blowout characterized by a kinematic imbalance between flame propagation speed and flow normal velocity. In the first phase dominant flow structures repeatedly draw the flame base closer to the jet centerline resulting in richer-than-stoichiometric mixtures and high velocity magnitudes. In the second phase, in spite of low velocity magnitudes and a return to stoichiometry, due to jet bending and flame alignment normal to the cross-flow, the flow velocity normal to the flame base increases dramatically perpetuating the blowout.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2755-2766
Number of pages12
JournalCombustion and Flame
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2012

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2C00-56071


  • Flame stabilization
  • Hydrogen combustion
  • Transverse jets


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