Mesoporous Sol-Gel WO3 Thin Films via Poly(styrene-co-allyl-alcohol) Copolymer Templates

Esra Ozkan Zayim, Ping Liu, Se Hee Lee, C. Edwin Tracy, John A. Turner, J. Roland Pitts, Satyen K. Deb

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus Citations


In this study a copolymer poly(styrene-co-allyl-alcohol), [-CH 2CH(C6H5)-]x[-CH 2CH-(CH2OH)-]y has been employed as a novel template in a sol-gel synthesis process to direct the formation of mesoporous tungsten oxide. The copolymer, due to its rigid hydrophobic block of polystyrene, is a more effective surfactant in an alcohol solution than polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide based compounds. The films have been prepared by a spin-coating technique from an ethanol solution of tungsten hexachloride. A room temperature, ultraviolet illumination method has been found to be very suitable for removing the polymer template, leading to the formation of a high-quality mesoporous structure. The electrochromic and optical properties of the mesoporous films are described and compared to standard sol-gel tungsten oxide films. Mesoporous materials exhibit superior high-rate ion-insertion performance when used as electrochromic layers.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)65-72
Number of pages8
JournalSolid State Ionics
Issue number1-4
StatePublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes
EventFifth International Meeting on Electrochromism - Golden, CO, United States
Duration: 5 Aug 20029 Aug 2002

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-590-35945


  • Electrochromism
  • Insertion kinetics
  • Mesoporous tungsten oxide
  • Sol-gel processing
  • Ultraviolet illumination


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