Metamorphic Epitaxy for Multijunction Solar Cells

Ryan France, Frank Dimroth, Tyler Grassman, Richard King

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus Citations


Multijunction solar cells have proven to be capable of extremely high efficiencies by combining multiple semiconductor materials with bandgaps tuned to the solar spectrum. Reaching the optimum set of semiconductors often requires combining high-quality materials with different lattice constants into a single device, a challenge particularly suited for metamorphic epitaxy. In this article, we describe different approaches to metamorphic multijunction solar cells, including traditional upright metamorphic, state-of-the-art inverted metamorphic, and forward-looking multijunction designs on silicon. We also describe the underlying materials science of graded buffers that enables metamorphic subcells with low dislocation densities. Following nearly two decades of research, recent efforts have demonstrated high-quality lattice-mismatched multijunction solar cells with very little performance loss related to the mismatch, enabling solar-to-electric conversion efficiencies over 45%.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)202-209
Number of pages8
JournalMRS Bulletin
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 Materials Research Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5J00-65434


  • dislocations
  • epitaxy
  • photovoltaic


Dive into the research topics of 'Metamorphic Epitaxy for Multijunction Solar Cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this