Modeling Ethanol-Blend Fuel Sprays under Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Conditions

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Computational modeling of fuel-injection and fuel-impingement processes was carried out to provide insight into previous experimental results obtained from a direct-injection spark-ignition research engine operated with various ethanol and aromatic fuel blends. Seven model fuels were evaluated using both single- and split-injection strategies. Model results showed that droplet vaporization enriched the concentrations of aromatic species in the liquid phase, especially those with low vapor pressure, and ethanol-containing fuels altered droplet sizes and led to increased liquid-phase mass in the cylinder. For the spray-modeling conditions studied, most of the injected fuel remained in the liquid phase, which would be expected to result in more fuel impingement on cylinder or piston surfaces. Fuel impinging on lower cylinder-temperature surfaces was found to create wall films that could interact with the piston during the compression stroke. Fuel impinging on hotter piston-temperature surfaces vaporized more readily, but for fuels with high ethanol and aromatic content, wall films remained and were highly concentrated with lower vapor pressure and aromatic compounds. These films could lead to pool fires during combustion and therefore significant particulate matter emissions.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)3031-3047
Number of pages17
JournalEnergy and Fuels
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-83663


  • ethanol blending
  • evaporation
  • fuel films
  • fuel spray
  • gasoline


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