Modeling Extreme Deformations in Lithium Ion Batteries

Anudeep Mallarapu, Jinyong Kim, Kelly Carney, Paul DuBois, Shriram Santhanagopalan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus Citations


A simultaneously coupled modeling approach to study the electrochemical and thermal behavior of lithium-ion batteries under large mechanical deformation has been developed. The thermo-electrochemical pseudo-2D (P2D) battery model is coupled with a mechanical material model. Mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical models are implemented as user-defined sub-routines in the commercial multi-physics code LS-DYNA. The mechanical strain experienced by anode, cathode and separator results in thickness and porosity changes in each layer which in turn influences electrochemical behavior. The evolution of concentration profiles and cell potential are studied under different mechanical loading conditions. Internal short-circuits caused by mechanical deformation and corresponding physical behaviors are also elucidated. We discuss the competing effects of improved transport at higher temperature due to the internal short-circuit versus a drop in the effective ionic conductivity and electrolyte diffusivity due to mechanical deformation.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number100065
Number of pages12
StatePublished - 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-76784


  • Battery safety
  • Coupled mechanical-ElectroChemical-thermal models
  • Crashworthiness
  • Extreme deformation


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