Modeling Primary Frequency Response for Grid Studies

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


For the electric power grid, maintaining nearly constant frequency is important measure of system reliability and stability. Primary frequency response (PFR) is one of the important reserve services used by grid operators to uphold steady frequency. Modeling PFR is historically rare in grid integration and planning studies, but could become more importantly with greater deployment of non-synchronous generators. In this work, we illustrate how a PFR constraint can be implemented into production cost models, which are a key component of grid planning studies. We also discuss the complexities and nuances associated with PFR modeling and provide results of a case study implementing PFR in a section of the western U.S. power grid.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages22
StatePublished - 2019

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-6A20-72355


  • ancillary services
  • primary frequency response
  • production cost modeling
  • reliability


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