Modeling the Long-Term Market Penetration of Wind in the United States

    Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


    This paper presents an overview of the Wind Deployment Systems Model (WinDS). WinDS is a multiregional, multitime-period, Geographic Information System (GIS), and linear programming model of capacity expansion in the electric sector of the United States. WinDS is designed to address the principal market issues related to the penetration of wind energy technologies into the electric sector. Theseprincipal market issues include access to and cost of transmission, and the intermittency of wind power. WinDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit accounting for the variability in wind output over time, and consideration of ancillary services requirements and costs.
    Original languageAmerican English
    Number of pages15
    StatePublished - 2003
    EventAmerican Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Windpower 2003 Conference - Austin, Texas
    Duration: 21 May 200321 May 2003


    ConferenceAmerican Wind Energy Association (AWEA) Windpower 2003 Conference
    CityAustin, Texas

    NREL Publication Number

    • NREL/CP-620-34469


    • analysis
    • analysis models
    • computer model
    • GIS
    • linear program
    • market penetration
    • null
    • null
    • null
    • peak loads
    • renewable energy (RE)
    • transmission capacity
    • transmission lines
    • Walter Short
    • Wind Deployment Systems Model
    • wind energy
    • wind expansion
    • wind resources
    • Windpower
    • winds


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