Module-Level Solutions For Degradation by Ionization Damage

Laura Schelhas, Archana Sinha, Jiadong Qian, Stephanie Moffitt, David Miller, Katherine Hurst, Peter Hacke

Research output: NRELPoster


After years of improving module efficiency while targeting mean degradation rates of 0.5 to 0.6 %/y for crystalline silicon technology, there is much evidence that the degradation rates are now increasing significantly. Contributing factors include:Radiation damage (UV-Light Induced Degradation): Trina solar: -4.5%/y degradation rate in Singapore, DOE National Laboratory Regional Test Centers showed degradation of -1% < r < -2%/y in crystalline silicon modules, Jinko Solar: -4% < r < -7% efficiency loss from 540 MJ/m-2 of UV-A light, ISFH: 15% relative power loss during of 1.8 GJ/m-2 UV exposure, attributed to H+. Electrical bias from positive system voltage (e.g., +1000 V, +1500 V) can drive ions and metallization through the encapsulation, NREL: Ion transport can affect the cell passivation, resulting in power loss of 5% to 40% in p-PERC+ (bifacial), NREL: Damage at cell rear with up to 17% power at cell fronts in n-PERT modules. Delamination can also occur due to cell surface reactions driven by light and bias.
Original languageAmerican English
StatePublished - 2020

Publication series

NamePresented at the Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop, 25-27 February 2020, Lakewood, Colorado

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PO-5K00-76397


  • module efficiency


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