Morphological Design Strategies to Tailor Out-of-Plane Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymer Systems for Device Applications

J. Wenderott, Ban Dong, Peter Green

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


The transport of charge carriers throughout an active conjugated polymer (CP) host, characterized by a heterogeneous morphology of locally varying degrees of order and disorder, profoundly influences the performance of CP-based electronic devices, including diodes, photovoltaics, sensors, and supercapacitors. Out-of-plane charge carrier mobilities (μout-of-plane) across the bulk of the active material host and in-plane mobilities (μin-plane) parallel to a substrate are highly sensitive to local morphological features along their migration pathways. In general, the magnitudes ofμout-of-planeandμin-planeare very different, in part because these carriers experience different morphological environments along their migration pathways. Suppressing the impact of variations in the morphological order/disorder on carrier migration remains an important challenge. While much is known aboutμin-planeand its optimization for devices, the current challenges are associated withμout-of-planeand its optimization for device performance. Therefore, this review is devoted to strategies for improvingμout-of-planein neat CP films and the implications for more complex systems, such as D:A blends which are relevant to OPV devices. The specific strategies discussed for improvingμout-of-planeinclude solvent/field processing methods, chemical modification, thickness confinement, chemical additives, and different post-annealing strategies, including annealing with supercritical fluids.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)27076-27102
Number of pages27
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue number48
StatePublished - 28 Dec 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© the Owner Societies 2021.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5A00-80225


  • carrier mobilities
  • carrier traps
  • conjugated polymer systems
  • design strategies
  • morphological design
  • out-of-plane charge transport
  • spectroscopy


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