MPC-Based Double-Layer Real-Time Conditional cSelf-Restoration for Interconnected Microgrids

Hongji Hu, Samson Yu, Junbo Zhao, Tatkei Chau, Fei Ding, Tyrone Fernando, Hieu Trinh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus Citations


In this work, we propose a novel model predictive control(MPC)-based real-time conditional self-restoration energy management system (CSR-EMS) for interconnected microgrids (IMGs) integrated with renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage systems (ESSs). Superior to the existing IMG self-restoration methods, the “conditionality” of the proposed CSR-EMS can economically realize self-restoration and grid-assisted restoration during energy deficiency or faults, in both islanded and grid-connected modes. Cost minimization is implemented as the objective function to judge in real-time which restoration mode is economically preferred. The proposed CSR-EMS comprises two layers–the lower layer operates locally to eliminate electricity fluctuations created by RESs and ensure economic effectiveness within an MG, whereas the upper layer oversees the real-time operational status of the IMG system and determines power exchange among microgrids (MGs) during abnormalities. In detail, when a microgrid inside the IMG system experiences an energy deficiency, the CSR-EMS, on an MPC basis, intelligently optimizes power production from each dispatchable distributed generator (DG), ESS, power imported from the main grid, and power exchange among the IMGs to maintain the demand–supply balance, while considering system recovery cost, state of charge (SoC) of ESSs and operation modes of the IMGs (i.e., grid-connected or islanded mode). Simulation results and comparisons with existing IMG self-healing EMSs demonstrate the economic efficacy of the proposed CSR-EMS strategy during normal and abnormal operations, which can be used as an energy control framework for modern power systems with multiple interconnected microgrids.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number106745
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Electrical Power and Energy Systems
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Ltd

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-79279


  • Conditional microgrid self-restoration
  • Interconnected microgrids
  • Model predictive control


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