Multi-Domain Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries Encompassing Multi-Physics in Varied Length Scales

Gi Heon Kim, Kandler Smith, Kyu Jin Lee, Shriram Santhanagopalan, Ahmad Pesaran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

305 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a general multi-scale multi-physics lithium-ion battery model framework, the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional model. The model introduces multiple coupled computational domains to resolve the interplay of lithium-ion battery physics in varied length scales. Model geometry decoupling and domain separation for the physicochemical process interplay are valid where the characteristic time or length scale is segregated. Assuming statistical homogeneity for repeated architectures typical of lithium-ion battery devices is often adequate and effective for modeling submodel geometries and physics in each domain. The modularized hierarchical architecture of the model provides a flexible and expandable framework facilitating modeling of the multiphysics behavior of lithium-ion battery systems. In this paper, the Multi-Scale Multi-Dimensional model is introduced and applied to a model analysis that resolves electrochemical-, electrical-, and thermal-coupled physics in large-format stacked prismatic cell designs.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)A955-A969
JournalJournal of the Electrochemical Society
Issue number8
StatePublished - 2011

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-51432


  • electrochemical thermal behavior
  • lithium-ion batteries


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