Multi-Input, Multi-Output Hybrid Energy Systems

Douglas Arent, Shannon Bragg-Sitton, David Miller, Thomas Tarka, Jill Engel-Cox, Richard Boardman, Peter Balash, Mark Ruth, Jordan Cox, David Garfield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus Citations


Jurisdictions and industries are setting ambitious goals to decarbonize energy systems. Low-cost wind, solar, and natural gas and the resultant dynamic electric grid require energy technologies to adapt in order to meet key attributes for modern energy systems: resilience, reliability, security, affordability, flexibility, and sustainability. When considering energy sources independently and competitively, value-added synergies among energy technologies may be overlooked for meeting demanding, multidimensional requirements. This paper presents novel concepts for tightly coupled hybrid energy systems that leverage capabilities of diverse energy generators, including renewable, nuclear, and fossil with carbon capture, to provide power, heat, mobility, and other energy services. The paper also presents a framework for engineering-based modeling and analysis for complex optimization of energy generation, transmission, services, processes and products, and market interactions. New modeling capabilities are needed to adequately represent multi-input, multi-output tightly coupled hybrid energy systems that utilize multiple feedstocks to create multiple products and services in novel and synergistic ways through increased coordination of energy systems and tightly coupled hybrid system configurations.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)47-58
Number of pages12
Issue number1
StatePublished - 20 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-6A50-76938


  • coordinated energy system
  • decarbonization
  • hybrid energy system
  • net-zero emissions


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