Multifaceted Drivers for Onshore Wind Energy Repowering and Their Implications for Energy Transition

Lena Kitzing, Morten Jensen, Thomas Telsnig, Eric Lantz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus Citations


Wind energy is anticipated to become a backbone of the future energy system. Ageing wind turbine fleets, increasing land-use constraints and rising relevance of societal factors make the deployment of land-based (onshore) wind energy ever more complicated. Consequently, repowering is expected to become a rapidly growing point of focus for the wind industry. Here we propose a more holistic and socially informed project-level approach to analyse repowering activity that enables a more robust understanding of the process and potentials. We demonstrate that for wind pioneer in Denmark, only 67% of the capacity removed in repowering projects was related to the physical space needed for a new turbine. Other factors that drive repowering include regulation (for example, noise-related, 8–17%), development principles (for example, aesthetics, 7–20%) and political bargaining (4–13%). The recognition of repowering as a negotiated process between host communities and wind developers will probably be critical to unlock the full potential of wind energy in the future.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1012-1021
Number of pages10
JournalNature Energy
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© National Renewable Energy Laboratory under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited 2020.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-75935


  • Denmark
  • energy planning
  • energy transition
  • repowering
  • wind
  • wind energy
  • wind power


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