Multifidelity Multiobjective Optimization for Wake-Steering Strategies

Julian Quick, Ryan King, Garrett Barter, Peter Hamlington

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Wake steering is an emerging wind power plant control strategy where upstream turbines are intentionally yawed out of perpendicular alignment with the incoming wind, thereby "steering"wakes away from downstream turbines. However, trade-offs between the gains in power production and fatigue loads induced by this control strategy are the subject of continuing investigation. In this study, we present a multifidelity multiobjective optimization approach for exploring the Pareto front of trade-offs between power and loading during wake steering. A large eddy simulation is used as the high-fidelity model, where an actuator line representation is used to model wind turbine blades and a rainflow-counting algorithm is used to compute damage equivalent loads. A coarser simulation with a simpler loads model is employed as a supplementary low-fidelity model. Multifidelity Bayesian optimization is performed to iteratively learn both a surrogate of the low-fidelity model and an additive discrepancy function, which maps the low-fidelity model to the high-fidelity model. Each optimization uses the expected hypervolume improvement acquisition function, weighted by the total cost of a proposed model evaluation in the multifidelity case. The multifidelity approach is able to capture the logit function shape of the Pareto frontier at a computational cost only 30 % that of the single-fidelity approach. Additionally, we provide physical insights into the vortical structures in the wake that contribute to the Pareto front shape.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1941-1955
Number of pages15
JournalWind Energy Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5000-81533 for article as published in Wind Energy Science Discussions

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-84692


  • multifidelity
  • optimization
  • wake steering
  • wind


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