Net-Zero Emissions Energy Systems

Brian Hodge, Steven Davis, Nathan Lewis, Matthew Shaner, Sonia Aggarwal, Ines Azevedo, Sally Benson, Thomas Bradley, Jack Brouwer, Yet-Ming Chiang, Christopher Clack, Armond Cohen, Stephen Doig, Jae Edmonds, Paul Fennell, Christopher Field, Bryan Hannegan, Martin Hoffert, Eric Ingersoll, Paulina JaramilloKlaus Lackner, Katharine Mach, Michael Mastrandrea, Joan Ogden, Per Peterson, Daniel Sanchez, Daniel Sperling, Joseph Stagner, Jessika Trancik, Chi-Jen Yang, Ken Caldeira

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1240 Scopus Citations


Som e energy services and industrial processes-such as long-distance freight transport, air travel, highly reliable electricity, and steel and cement manufacturing-are particularly difficult to provide without adding carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Rapidly growing demand for these services, combined with long lead times for technology development and long lifetimes of energy infrastructure, make decarbonization of these services both essential and urgent.We examine barriers and opportunities associated with these difficult-to-decarbonize services and processes, including possible technological solutions and research and development priorities. A range of existing technologies could meet future demands for these services and processes without net addition of CO2 to the atmosphere, but their use may depend on a combination of cost reductions via research and innovation, as well as coordinated deployment and integration of operations across currently discrete energy industries.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numbereaas9793
Number of pages9
Issue number6396
StatePublished - 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights reserved.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-70804


  • CO2
  • energy services
  • without net addition carbon dioxide


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