Nickel-Doped Graphite and Fusible Alloy Bilayer Back Electrode for Vacuum-Free Perovskite Solar Cells

Mengyuan Li, So Yeon Park, Jianxin Wang, Ding Zheng, Owen Wostoupal, Xudong Xiao, Zhenzhen Zhang, Xun Li, Benjamin Diroll, Tobin Marks, Kai Zhu, Tao Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus Citations


With the rapid development of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), lowering fabrication costs for PSCs has become a prominent challenge for commercialization. At present, gold is commonly used as the back metal electrode in state-of-the-art n-i-p structured PSCs due to its compatible work function, chemical inertness, and high conductivity. However, the high cost of gold and the expensive and time-consuming vacuum-based thin-film coating facilities may impede large-scale industrialization of PSCs. Here, we report a bilayer back electrode configuration consisting of an Ni-doped natural graphite layer with a fusible Bi-In alloy. This back electrode can be deposited in a vacuum-free approach and enables PSCs with a power conversion efficiency of 21.0%. These inexpensive materials and facile ambient fabrication techniques provide an appealing disruptive solution to low-cost PSC industrialization.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2940-2945
Number of pages6
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-86385


  • fusible alloy
  • graphite
  • low cost
  • perovskite solar cell
  • vacuum free


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