Numerical Simulations of High Prandtl Number Liquid Jets Impinging on a Flat Plate

Adele Poubeau, Guillaume Vinay, Bidzina Kekelia, Kevin Bennion

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


In this work, 3D simulations of oil jets impinging on a flat, heated wall are presented. The numerical setup uses the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method to model the two-phase flow. A careful grid definition across the liquid film, along with the use of the Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) approach allowed local heat transfer to be solved with fine resolution at the wall. Variations of liquid flow rate, liquid temperature and surface temperature allow to cover a wide range of local Reynolds and Prandtl numbers (226<Re<2850, 77<Pr<161). Resulting surface-averaged heat transfer compares very well with experimental measurements conducted in a previous study. In-depth analysis of the flow has identified expected features from the literature. In particular, the impact of jet axial velocity profiles on the heat transfer distribution in the stagnation zone was clearly stated. The increase in heat transfer when warming the liquid film was also reproduced and explained by a decrease in oil viscosity and an increase in film velocity. All those effects were taken into account in correlations for stagnation and local values of Nusselt number. A grid sensitivity study was also conducted, showing that if the grid solving the thermal boundary layer in the stagnation zone can be coarsened without impacting local and surface-averaged predictions of heat transfer, a minimum resolution (2 to 3 cells) within the thermal boundary layer is however required for an accurate prediction of heat transfer.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 123889
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer
StatePublished - 15 May 2023

Bibliographical note

See NREL/JA-5400-81722 for paper as published in SSRN

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-85373


  • Conjugate heat transfer
  • Electric machine cooling
  • High Prandtl number
  • Liquid jet impingement
  • Volume of fluid


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