OC6 Phase II: Integration and Verification of a New Soil-Structure Interaction Model for Offshore Wind Design

Roger Bergua, Amy Robertson, Jason Jonkman, Andy Platt, Ana Page, Jacob Qvist, Ervin Amet, Zhisong Cai, Huali Han, Alec Beardsell, Wei Shi, Josean Galvan, Erin Bachynski-Polic, Gill McKinnon, Violette Harnois, Paul Bonnet, Loup Suja-Thauvin, Anders Hansen, Inigo Alonso, Ander AristondoTommaso Battistella, Raul Guanche, Paul Schunemann, Thanh-Dam Pham, Pau Trubat, Daniel Alarcon, Florence Haudin, Minh Nguyen, Akhilesh Goveas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus Citations


This paper provides a summary of the work done within the OC6 Phase II project, which was focused on the implementation and verification of an advanced soil–structure interaction model for offshore wind system design and analysis. The soil–structure interaction model comes from the REDWIN project and uses an elastoplastic, macroelement model with kinematic hardening, which captures the stiffness and damping characteristics of offshore wind foundations more accurately than more traditional and simplified soil–structure interaction modeling approaches. Participants in the OC6 project integrated this macroelement capability to coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic offshore wind turbine modeling tools and verified the implementation by comparing simulation results across the modeling tools for an example monopile design. The simulation results were also compared to more traditional soil–structure interaction modeling approaches like apparent fixity, coupled springs, and distributed springs models. The macroelement approach resulted in smaller overall loading in the system due to both shifts in the system frequencies and increased energy dissipation. No validation work was performed, but the macroelement approach has shown increased accuracy within the REDWIN project, resulting in decreased uncertainty in the design. For the monopile design investigated here, that implies a less conservative and thus more cost-effective offshore wind design.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)793-810
Number of pages18
JournalWind Energy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI). This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-80680


  • hysteretic damping
  • macroelement
  • monopile
  • OC6
  • offshore wind
  • soil–structure interaction


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