On the Impact of Mechanics on Electrochemistry of Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

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Models exploring electrochemistry-mechanics coupling in liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery anodes have traditionally incorporated stress impact on thermodynamics, bulk diffusive transport, and fracture, while stress-kinetics coupling is more explored in the context of all solid-state batteries. Here, we showcase the existence of strong link between active particle surface pressure and reaction kinetics affecting performance even in liquid electrolyte systems. Traction-free and immobile particle surface mechanical boundary conditions are used to delineate the varying pressure magnitudes in graphite host during cycling. Both tensile and compressive stresses are generated in traction-free case, while a fixed surface subjects the entire particle to a compression state. Pressure magnitudes are nearly two to three orders of magnitude higher for the latter resulting in significant depression of open circuit potential and improvement of exchange current densities compared to stress-free state. The results demonstrate the need for incorporating stress-kinetics linkage in models and provide a rationale for putting battery electrodes under compression to improve kinetics.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1171-1179
Number of pages9
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-87942


  • anodes
  • lithium-ion
  • mechanics
  • stress


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