On the Low Risk of SSR in Type III Wind Turbines Operating with Grid-Forming Control

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We have shown in previous work that the risk of subsynchronous resonance between wind power plants with Type III wind turbines and series-compensated transmission lines is low when the wind turbines are operated in grid-forming (GFM) mode instead of the standard grid-following mode. This paper explains the fundamental mechanism behind the improved damping characteristics by modeling the positive- and negative-sequence impedances of Type III wind turbines in GFM control mode. It is discovered that the GFM control naturally acts against the negative resistance behavior of Type III wind turbines at subsynchronous frequencies that results from an interaction between the rotor-side converter current controller and negative slip. The developed impedance models in the sequence domain and the improved damping behavior are verified using PSCAD simulations of a 2.5-MW Type III GFM wind turbine. The modeling predictions are also supported by experimentally measuring the impedance response of a 2.5-MW Type III wind turbine in GFM mode.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)443-453
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-84073


  • grid-forming control
  • impedance modeling
  • stability
  • subsynchronous resonance
  • wind turbine


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