Operando Microscopy Characterization of Perovskite Solar Cells: Preprint

Chuanxiao Xiao, Chun Sheng Jiang, Mowafak Al-Jassim, Changlei Wang, Zhaoning Song, Yanfa Yan

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


In this work, we developed operando Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) to study the electrostatic potential distribution across perovskite cells under light and forward bias to gain a deeper understanding of device operation physics. As a case study, we selected perovskite cells with a SnO2-based electron-selective layer (ESL), which showed great potential for fabricating high-efficiency, hysteresis-free devices due to the deeper conduction band and higher electron mobility of SnO2. The as-made device showed a main junction at the perovskite/spiro interface. After light soaking and applying forward bias, the junction quality improved, possibly explained by filling trap states at the interfaces and by the perovskite absorber perhaps having a self-poling effect; the main junction is observed at the ESL/perovskite interface. The results are consistent with current-voltage measurements, device performance improves mainly with fill factor enhancement. The operando KPFM results should more closely reflect the real case during current density-voltage measurements or solar cell operation. The operando KPFM technique that we have developed can be a powerful tool to provide a deeper understanding of the device operation mechanism and to further optimize the device.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages7
StatePublished - 2019
Event46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 46) - Chicago, Illinois
Duration: 16 Jun 201921 Jun 2019


Conference46th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC 46)
CityChicago, Illinois

Bibliographical note

See NREL/CP-5K00-76351 for paper as published in IEEE proceedings

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5K00-73109


  • enhancement
  • fill factor
  • interface
  • junction quality
  • operando KPFM
  • perovskite


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