Optimal Battery Utilization Over Lifetime for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle to Maximize Fuel Economy

Kandler Smith, Ying Shi, Chinmaya Patil, Payam Naghshtabrizi, Rajeev Verma, Zhijun Tang

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaperpeer-review

11 Scopus Citations


This paper presents a control strategy to maximize fuel economy of a parallel hybrid electric vehicle over a target life of the battery. Many approaches to maximizing fuel economy of parallel hybrid electric vehicle do not consider the effect of control strategy on the life of the battery. This leads to an oversized and underutilized battery. There is a trade-off between how aggressively to use and 'consume' the battery versus to use the engine and consume fuel. The proposed approach addresses this trade-off by exploiting the differences in the fast dynamics of vehicle power management and slow dynamics of battery aging. slow update rate, e.g. once per month, responsible for generating optimal set points for PPM. The considered set points in this paper are the battery power limits and State Of Charge (SOC). The problem of finding the optimal set points over the target battery life that minimize engine fuel consumption is solved using dynamic programming. PPM is the lower level control with high update rate, e.g. a second, responsible for generating the optimal HEV energy management controls and is implemented using model predictive control approach. The PPM objective is to find the engine and battery power commands to achieve the best fuel economy given the battery power and SOC constraints imposed by PBM. Simulation results with a medium duty commercial hybrid electric vehicle and the proposed two-level hierarchical control strategy show that the HEV fuel economy is maximized while meeting a specified target battery life. On the other hand, the optimal unconstrained control strategy achieves marginally higher fuel economy, but fails to meet the target battery life.

Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages6
StatePublished - 28 Jul 2016
Event2016 American Control Conference, ACC 2016 - Boston, United States
Duration: 6 Jul 20168 Jul 2016


Conference2016 American Control Conference, ACC 2016
Country/TerritoryUnited States

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 American Automatic Control Council (AACC).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5400-67053


  • aging
  • batteries
  • engines
  • fuels
  • hybrid electric vehicles
  • resistance


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