Optimal Strategies for Hybrid Battery-Storage Systems Design

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus Citations


As stationary hybrid energy-storage systems (HESS) for power systems applications have recently drawn interest due to their enhanced performance and decreasing cost, developing systematic approaches for HESS design while considering controls is gaining traction. Herein, a method is presented to optimally design hybrid battery storage by proposing a mathematical modeling framework, formulated as a mixed integer linear programming model. The optimization is capable of handling multiple subsystems of batteries, considering their economic and technological performance. Decisions involve sizing of the batteries, optimal temporal and strategic dispatch to end uses, and energy sources for charging each battery. The applicability of the model is tested on four case studies for three battery chemistries representing distinct objectives: high-power, high-energy, and second life. Compared to traditionally designed battery storage with a homogeneous battery, optimally designed hybrid systems can save 12%–26% of system costs, depending on the nature of the dispatch profile. Findings point to design preference toward the second life battery supplemented with some high-power or high-energy battery capacity, or both. With the utilized electricity price structure, customers can experience approximately 10%–35% reduction in their bills.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number2300115
Number of pages11
JournalEnergy Technology
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5700-85268


  • electricity markets
  • hybrid energy storage
  • multiple battery chemistries
  • optimization
  • renewable energy


Dive into the research topics of 'Optimal Strategies for Hybrid Battery-Storage Systems Design'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this