Optimal Variable Switching Frequency Scheme to Reduce Loss of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverter With Unipolar and Bipolar PWM

Yinglai Xia, Jinia Roy, Rajapandian Ayyanar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus Citations


Reducing the power loss of a converter without increasing its volume or cost in hardware has always been a much sought-after but challenging goal. This article proposes a comprehensive variable switching frequency (VSF) scheme to improve the overall system efficiency while still meeting a given total harmonic distortion (THD) requirement without any hardware changes, achieved only by changes to the controller. In this article, it is analyzed that for the H-bridge inverter, the inductor copper loss and the switch conduction loss are independent of the switching frequency (SF), while the device switching loss and the inductor core loss are functions of the SF. This article aims at weighting the combined switching loss and inductor core loss for both the unipolar and bipolar modulation techniques, with the constraint on the output THD, which, for fixed passive components, is a function of inductor ripple current that in turn depends on the SF. An optimal VSF scheme is devised through rigorous mathematical analysis of the output ripple component and the SF-dependent losses. In each switching cycle, the inductor ripple current is predicted with the circuit parameters, such as duty cycle, switching period, inductance, and dc voltage, and by implementing the VSF scheme, the current ripple is optimally varied such as to satisfy the THD requirement while reducing the SF-dependent losses. A generalized method to design VSF schemes for any topology and specifications is also presented, which would help future users in designing the VSF controller. A 1-kW H-bridge inverter using SiC MOSFETs and powdered iron/ferrite core has been built to validate the theoretical analysis. Both constant SF (CSF) scheme (200 kHz) and optimal VSF scheme with simple controller modification have been implemented in the experimental prototype using DSP TMS320f28335. Compared with the CSF scheme, the optimal VSF scheme shows a significant improvement in the system efficiency at rated power from 94.7%...
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)1013-1026
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Emerging and Selected Topics in Power Electronics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-79685


  • conduction loss
  • DSP controller
  • inductor coreloss
  • Lagrange optimization
  • loss optimization
  • switching loss
  • variable switching frequency


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