Optimizing DER Participation in Inertial and Primary-Frequency Response

Emiliano Dall-Anese, Swaroop Guggilam, Sairaj Dhople, Yu Chen, Changhong Zhao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Scopus Citations


This paper develops an approach to enable the optimal participation of distributed energy resources (DERs) in inertial and primary-frequency response alongside conventional synchronous generators. Leveraging a reduced-order model description of frequency dynamics, DERs' synthetic inertias and droop coefficients are designed to meet time-domain performance objectives of frequency overshoot and steady-state regulation. Furthermore, an optimization-based method centered around classical economic dispatch is developed to ensure that DERs share the power injections for inertial- and primary-frequency response in proportion to their power ratings. Simulations for a modified New England test-case system composed of ten synchronous generators and six instances of the IEEE 37-node test feeder with frequency-responsive DERs validate the design strategy.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)5194-5205
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2018

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5D00-68606


  • distributed energy resources
  • inertial response
  • model reduction
  • primary-frequency response


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