Performance Evaluation of Multi-Vendor Grid-Forming Inverters for Grid-Connected Operation Through Hardware Experimentation: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Existing real-world projects of GFM inverters that operate in parallel to power grids typically are sized between dozens and a few hundreds Megawatt (MW) scale according to a recent NERC GFM inverter white paper. These large systems are often difficult to evaluate prior to deployments because of their large size. The performance of smaller GFM inverters (dozens to a few hundreds MW) that operate parallel with power grids (distribution systems) is even less understood. There is an opportunity to better understand these systems through hardware testing under controlled laboratory conditions. Therefore, this paper presents the functional performance evaluation tests of multiple (three) commercial GFM inverters when they operate in parallel with the grid through hardware experiments. The goal of these tests is to explore the GFM inverters' functionalities and dynamic response when in parallel with power grids to eventually develop universal specifications for GFM inverters. Both steady state (changing the inverter's frequency and voltage droop) and transient (adding step change in grid's frequency/voltage) tests are performed for each GFM inverter with the same testing circuit and testing protocol. The experimental results indicate the bench-marked performance that: 1) the GFM inverters can be dispatched through frequency and voltage droop intercepts to output the target power when paralleled to the grid; 2) the GFM inverters automatically respond to system frequency and voltage events to output the needed power, however, the GFM inverters all show stability issues when absorbing reactive power from the grid.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages8
StatePublished - 2024
EventIEEE PES T&D Conference & Exposition - Anaheim, CA
Duration: 6 May 20249 May 2024


ConferenceIEEE PES T&D Conference & Exposition
CityAnaheim, CA

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-87199


  • grid-forming inverters
  • microgrids
  • parallel to the grid
  • performance evaluation


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