Perovskite Ink with Wide Processing Window for Scalable High-Efficiency Solar Cells

Mengjin Yang, Zhen Li, Matthew O. Reese, Obadiah G. Reid, Dong Hoe Kim, Sebastian Siol, Talysa R. Klein, Yanfa Yan, Joseph J. Berry, Maikel F.A.M. Van Hest, Kai Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

498 Scopus Citations


Perovskite solar cells have made tremendous progress using laboratory-scale spin-coating methods in the past few years owing to advances in controls of perovskite film deposition. However, devices made via scalable methods are still lagging behind state-of-the-art spin-coated devices because of the complicated nature of perovskite crystallization from a precursor state. Here we demonstrate a chlorine-containing methylammonium lead iodide precursor formulation along with solvent tuning to enable a wide precursor-processing window (up to ∼8 min) and a rapid grain growth rate (as short as ∼1 min). Coupled with antisolvent extraction, this precursor ink delivers high-quality perovskite films with large-scale uniformity. The ink can be used by both spin-coating and blade-coating methods with indistinguishable film morphology and device performance. Using a blade-coated absorber, devices with 0.12-cm2 and 1.2-cm2 areas yield average efficiencies of 18.55% and 17.33%, respectively. We further demonstrate a 12.6-cm2 four-cell module (88% geometric fill factor) with 13.3% stabilized active-area efficiency output.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number17038
Number of pages9
JournalNature Energy
Issue number5
StatePublished - 27 Mar 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-67357


  • perovskites
  • precursor ink
  • solar cells


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