Phenolic Resin Derived Hard Carbon Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries: A Review

Shaikat Chandra Dey, Brian Worfolk, Lillian Lower, William Sagues, Mark Nimlos, Stephen Kelley, Sunkyu Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Sodium-ion batteries are complementary to lithium-ion batteries for grid-scale energy storage applications due to lower cost, safety, and potential for sustainable supply chains. The past decade has witnessed enormous research efforts in developing hard carbon anode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Phenolic resins have received significant attention as hard carbon precursors due to their high carbon yield, highly cross-linked structure, low cost, mature technology, and excellent electrochemical performance of corresponding hard carbon anode. This Review exclusively highlights the state-of-the-art preparation of hard carbon from phenolic resins, and the electrochemical performance in sodium-ion batteries. Cross-linked resins are prepared from three phenolic monomers (phenol, resorcinol, and phloroglucinol) to produce hard carbon. The effects of carbonization temperature on the microstructure, and electrochemical properties of hard carbon have been summarized here. Hard carbon formation, and sodium storage mechanisms have been briefly outlined. Finally, this Review provides an industrial perspective on hard carbon production at scale.
Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)2590-2614
Number of pages25
JournalACS Energy Letters
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2024

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2800-90080


  • aromatic compounds
  • electrodes
  • hydrocarbons
  • organic polymers
  • precursors


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