Photovoltaic Plant and Battery Energy Storage System Integration at NREL's Flatirons Campus

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


Although utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants are becoming a cost-effective energy resource, there is belief within the energy industry that the increasing penetrations of PV technologies could potentially impact grid reliability. This is due to the variability across timescales, the forecast uncertainty of the solar energy resource, and the impacts on both distribution and transmission systems. This can cause utilities to severely limit PV installations or to assign PV integration costs when considering a least-cost portfolio of resources. As California and other regions in the United States are marching toward fulfilling - and probably exceeding - their renewables portfolio standards goals, grid operators are beginning to face operational challenges that could have implications for existing renewable and nonrenewable generators and that will shape opportunities for future projects. In this work, we focused on developing controls and conducting demonstrations for AC-coupled PV-battery energy storage systems (BESS) in which PV and BESS are colocated and share a point of common coupling (PCC).
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages109
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5D00-81104


  • battery energy storage
  • PV generation


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