Planning Optimization for Inductively Charged On-Demand Automated Electric Shuttles Project at Greenville, South Carolina

Ahmed Mohamed, Lei Zhu, Andrew Meintz, Eric Wood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus Citations


Wireless charging technology presents an ideal fit for autonomous electric vehicles for realizing a fully automated system (vehicle and charger). This article presents a planning optimization analysis for a pilot project of in-route wireless charging infrastructure serving fixed-route on-demand shared automated electric shuttles (SAESs) at Greenville, SC, USA. A single-objective nonlinear mixed integer system planning optimization problem is formulated. A comprehensive cost model representing the overall inductively charged SAESs system is developed, considering road construction, power electronics and materials, traction battery, and installation costs. The optimization problem is solved to determine the best combination of the system key design parameters (number and allocations of wireless chargers, charging power level, track length, and on-board battery capacity) that show the most cost-effective solution and allow the SAESs to achieve charge-sustaining operation. The planning platform incorporates representative simulated traffic data (driving speed and routes) for four SAESs in the Greenville using the Simulation of Urban Mobility tool. These data are fed to a vehicle powertrain model and a wireless charger power model to predict the battery power, energy and state-of-charge profiles, which are provided to the search algorithm to assess the design objectives under specific constraints. The results indicate that implementing high-power (100 kW) wireless charger at a few designated stops for fixed-route SAESs with the proper track length allows the vehicles to realize charge-sustaining operation, infinite range, and zero recharge downtime, with a significant reduction in the on-board battery (36%) and road coverage (69%), at minimum cost.

Original languageAmerican English
Article number8930076
Pages (from-to)1010-1020
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1 Mar 2020

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-74341


  • Autonomous electric shuttles
  • in-route
  • optimization
  • planning
  • wireless charging
  • wireless power transfer (WPT)


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