Policy Choices and Outcomes for Offshore Wind Auctions Globally: Article No. 113000

Malte Jansen, Philipp Beiter, Iegor Riepin, Felix Muesgens, Victor Juarez Guajardo-Fajardo, Iain Staffel, Bernhard Bulder, Lena Kitzing

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus Citations


Offshore wind energy is rapidly expanding, facilitated largely through auctions run by governments. We provide a detailed quantified overview of utilised auction schemes, including geographical spread, volumes, results, and design specifications. Our comprehensive global dataset reveals heterogeneous designs. Although most auction designs provide some form of revenue stabilisation, their specific instrument choices vary and include feed-in tariffs, one-sided and two-sided contracts for difference, mandated power purchase agreements, and mandated renewable energy certificates. We review the schemes used in all eight major offshore wind jurisdictions across Europe, Asia, and North America and evaluate bids in their jurisdictional context. We analyse cost competitiveness, likelihood of timely construction, occurrence of strategic bidding, and identify jurisdictional aspects that might have influenced auction results. We find that auctions are embedded within their respective regulatory and market design context, and are remarkably diverse, though with regional similarities. Auctions in each jurisdiction have evolved and tend to become more exposed to market price risks over time. Less mature markets are more prone to make use of lower-risk designs. Still, some form of revenue stabilisation is employed for all auctioned offshore wind energy farms analysed here, regardless of the specific policy choices. Our data confirm a coincidence of declining costs and growing diffusion of auction regimes.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages17
JournalEnergy Policy
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5000-78951


  • auctions
  • offshore wind
  • procurement


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