Policy Framework to Improve Mobility Efficiency and Electrify Transportation in Tonga

Research output: NRELTechnical Report


The Kingdom of Tonga, like many small island developing states, is heavily dependent on imported fossil fuels to meet its current energy needs, especially for transportation. The Kingdom has requested a policy framework that benefits its land transportation sector by saving cost and time, increasing resilience, and reducing petroleum and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This framework was developed by building on past work, namely the Tonga Energy Efficiency Master Plan 2020-2030 (TEEMP), the Tonga Energy Road Map 2021-2035 (TERMPLUS), and the Regional Electric Mobility Policy for Pacific Island Countries and Territories developed by the Pacific Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (PCREEE). The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to Tonga's land transportation system were identified at stakeholder working group meetings in Tonga in June 2023. A set of appropriate policies that have been effective in relevant jurisdictions were then discussed and refined by the working group. The resulting 27 policies are defined according to intended outcomes, relationship to other proposed policies, applications in other relevant jurisdictions, hurdles to implementation, resilience impact, equity impact, and government revenue impact. Some of the policies are also accompanied by implementation recommendations.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages108
StatePublished - 2023

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/TP-5400-87827


  • electric vehicle charging infrastructure
  • electric vehicles
  • mobility
  • mobility efficiency
  • Pacific Islands
  • policy
  • policy framework
  • resilience
  • Tonga
  • transportation
  • transportation efficiency


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