Potential of U.S. Marine and Offshore Wind Energy to Power Marine Carbon Dioxide Removal

Research output: NRELPoster


The goal of this project was to provide a preliminary feasibility assessment of powering different marine carbon dioxide removal (mCDR), carbon capture (mCC), and carbon sequestration (mCS) strategies with marine energy. The investigation focused on methods with clear power requirements at sea beyond monitoring such as artificial upwelling, deep ocean storage, electrochemical (eChem) mCDR and mCC, offshore microalgae cultivation, and seaweed farming and sinking. The project found that eChem mCDR powered by marine energy and offshore wind energy available in the United States could meet global CDR scales needed by 2040 and 2050 to limit warming to 1.5 degrees C by 2100 and marine energy alone could greatly contribute to reaching scales needed by 2040. Note that this preliminary estimate assumes that it is possible to harvest all the marine and offshore wind resources available in the United States with existing technology options. Though the biological methods were limited in scale they still hold promise in developing carbon negative fuels and products which can reduce emissions in the short term.
Original languageAmerican English
PublisherNational Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)
StatePublished - 2023

Publication series

NamePresented at the American Geophysical Union (AGU23) Annual Meeting, 11-15 December 2023, San Francisco, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/PO-5700-88155


  • afforestation
  • alkalinity addition
  • aquifer
  • artificial upwelling
  • basalt
  • carbon dioxide
  • carbonate formation
  • CO2 stripping
  • deep ocean storage
  • deep sea
  • electrochemical
  • farming
  • marine energy
  • mCDR
  • microalgae cultivation
  • offshore
  • Powering the Blue Economy
  • seaweed
  • sequestration
  • sinking
  • water column
  • wind energy


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