Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Interfaces for Inverter-Based Microgrid Experiments Including Transitions: Preprint

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper


Microgrids continue to proliferate, particularly those that rely on inverter-based resources as the microgrid's voltage and frequency leader. Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulations can de-risk microgrid deployments, and therefore we need power-hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) interfaces for grid-forming (GFM) inverters to enable simulations of seamless transitions between islanded and grid-connected operation. Such microgrid interfaces are particularly challenging to model when the inverters need to switch modes, i.e., between grid-following (GFL) and GFM as the microgrid transitions between grid-connected and islanded operation. This paper presents two PHIL interfaces for such microgrids and the preliminary experimental results: One interface is suitable for those who have access to a power amplifier that can operate as a controllable current source, and the other is for those who need a solution that uses a voltage-mode power amplifier.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2023
EventEnergy Conversion Congress and Expo (IEEE-ECCE) - Nashville, TN
Duration: 29 Oct 20232 Nov 2023


ConferenceEnergy Conversion Congress and Expo (IEEE-ECCE)
CityNashville, TN

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/CP-5D00-85284


  • battery energy storage system
  • fuel cells
  • grid- forming inverter
  • grid-following inverter
  • microgrid transition
  • microgrids
  • power-hardware-in-the- loop


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