Printed Assemblies of Microscale Triple-Junction Inverted Metamorphic GaInP/GaAs/InGaAs Solar Cells

John Geisz, Daniel Friedman, Boju Gai, Huandong Chen, Jongseung Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus Citations


Inverted metamorphic (IMM) multijunction solar cells represent a promising material platform for ultrahigh efficiency photovoltaic systems (UHPVs) with a clear pathway to beyond 50% efficiency. The conventional device processing of IMM solar cells, however, typically involves wafer bonding of a centimeter-scale die and destructive substrate removal, thereby imposing severe restrictions in achievable cell size, type of module substrate, spatial layout, as well as cost effectiveness. Here, we report material design and fabrication strategies for microscale triple-junction IMM (3J IMM) Ga 0.51 In 0.49 P/GaAs/In 0.26 Ga 0.74 As solar cells that can overcome these difficulties. Specialized schemes of delineation and undercut etching enable the defect-free release of microscale IMM solar cells and printed assemblies on a glass substrate in a manner that preserves the growth substrate, where efficiencies of 27.3% and 33.9% are demonstrated at simulated AM1.5D one- and 351 sun illumination, respectively. A composite carrier substrate where released IMM microcells are formed in fully functional, print-ready configurations allows high-throughput transfer printing of individual IMM microcells in a programmable spatial layout on versatile choices of module substrate, all desired for CPV applications.

Original languageAmerican English
Pages (from-to)520-527
Number of pages8
JournalProgress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-73158


  • III-V
  • inverted metamorphic
  • microcells
  • multijunction solar cells
  • transfer printing


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