Procedure for Assessing the Suitability of Battery Second Life Applications after EV First Life: Article No. 122

Tomas Montes, Maite Etxandi-Santolaya, Josh Eichman, Victor Ferreira, Lluis Trilla, Cristina Corchero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus Citations


Using batteries after their first life in an Electric Vehicle (EV) represents an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact and increase the economic benefits before recycling the battery. Many different second life applications have been proposed, each with multiple criteria that have to be taken into consideration when deciding the most suitable course of action. In this article, a battery assessment procedure is proposed that consolidates and expands upon the approaches in the literature, and facilitates the decision-making process for a battery after it has reached the end of its first life. The procedure is composed of three stages, including an evaluation of the state of the battery, an evaluation of the technical viability and an economic evaluation. Options for battery configurations are explored (pack direct use, stack of battery packs, module direct use, pack refurbish with modules, pack refurbish with cells). By comparing these configurations with the technical requirements for second life applications, a reader can rapidly understand the tradeoffs and practical strategies for how best to implement second life batteries for their specific application. Lastly, an economic evaluation process is developed to determine the cost of implementing various second life battery configurations and the revenue for different end use applications. An example of the battery assessment procedure is included to demonstrate how it could be carried out.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages19
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2022

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5400-84527


  • battery assessment
  • battery life cycle
  • electric vehicle
  • energy storage system
  • lithium-ion battery
  • second life


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