Process R&D for CIS-Based Thin-Film PV: Annual Technical Report, January 2003--January 2004

Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


This subcontract report describes Shell Solar Industries' outstanding progress in the initial commercialization of high-performance thin-film CIS technology. Cumulative production for 2002 exceeded 1 MW-about twice the production rate for 2001. SSI 2003 capacity was about 3 MW per year, whereas production for 2003 was just over 1.2 MW per year. Introducing the new product accounts for the maindifference between production and capacity. Average laminate efficiency for 2003 was 11.0% with a full width of only 11% of the average. This distribution is nominally the same as the distribution for 2002, but with an about 33% increase in production volume. Line yield increased from about 60% in 2000 to about 85% in 2002. Maintenance of this high line yield was demonstrated during 2003.Process R&D during this and previous subcontract periods, both at SSI and in collaboration with NREL teams, has demonstrated the potential for further cost performance improvements: minimization of transients, increased efficiency, and improved packaging. Long-term outdoor stability has been demonstrated at NREL where~30x30 cm and~30x120 cm modules with multiple prototype package designs haveundergone testing for over 14 years. Field failure mechanisms related to particular package designs and errors during production have been clearly identified. Additional circuit plate or packaging process variables may have affected durability during particular production timeframes; when losses have been observed, the losses correlated with date of deployment or prototype module configuration.Prototype glass/glass packages for individual 40-W circuit plates have passed accelerated tests, including the damp-heat test. This package incorporates an edge seal developed in collaboration with the National Thin-Film PV Module Reliability Team. Developing and testing of 40-W glass/glass packages is being extended to a new 80-W product made using two nominally 40-W circuit plates laminated toa common front sheet.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages51
StatePublished - 2004

Bibliographical note

Work performed by Shell Solar Industries, Camarillo, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/SR-520-36936


  • bandgap
  • circuit processing sequence
  • crystalline silicon (x-Si) (c-Si)
  • CuInSe2 (CIS)
  • manufacturer
  • module
  • monolithic integration
  • organic light-emitting diode (OLED)
  • photoluminescence
  • PV
  • quantum efficiency (QE)
  • solar cells
  • thermal exposure
  • thin films
  • transients effects


Dive into the research topics of 'Process R&D for CIS-Based Thin-Film PV: Annual Technical Report, January 2003--January 2004'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this