Process R&D for CIS-Based Thin-Film PV: Final Technical Report, April 2002 - April 2005

Research output: NRELSubcontract Report


The primary objectives of this Shell Solar Industries subcontract are to address key near-term technical R&D issues for continued CIS product improvement; continue process development for increased production capacity; develop processes capable of significantly contributing to DOE 2020 PV shipment goals; advance mid- and longer-term R&D needed by industry for future product competitivenessincluding improving module performance, decreasing production process costs per watt produced, and improving reliability; and perform aggressive module lifetime R&D directed at developing packages that address the DOE goal for modules that will last up to 30 years while retaining 80% of initial power. These production R&D results, production volume, efficiency, high line yield, and advances inunderstanding are major accomplishments. The demonstrated and maintained high production yield is a major accomplishment supporting attractive cost projections for CIS. Process R&D at successive levels of CIS production has led to the continued demonstration of the prerequisites for commitment to large-scale commercialization. Process and packaging R&D during this and previous subcontracts hasdemonstrated the potential for further cost and performance improvements.
Original languageAmerican English
Number of pages72
StatePublished - 2006

Bibliographical note

Work performed by Shell Solar Industries, Camarillo, California

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/SR-520-38805


  • aperture-area efficiency
  • CIS
  • manufacturing
  • module
  • packaging R&D
  • process development
  • PV
  • reliability
  • solar cells
  • thin films


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