Production of ..beta..-Ketoadipic Acid from Glucose in Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for Use in Performance-Advantaged Nylons

Nicholas Rorrer, Sandra Notonier, Brandon Knott, Brenna Black, Avantika Singh, Scott Nicholson, Christopher Kinchin, Graham Schmidt, Alberta Carpenter, Kelsey Ramirez, Christopher Johnson, Davinia Salvachua, Michael Crowley, Gregg Beckham

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus Citations


Biomass-derived chemicals can offer unique chemical functionality relative to petroleum-derived building blocks. To this end, here we report that β-ketoadipic acid (βKA), a C6 diacid with a β-ketone group, can be used as a performance-advantaged replacement for adipic acid in a nylon-6,6 analog. Building on our previous efforts to produce shikimate-derived products from carbohydrates, Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is engineered to produce βKA from glucose, achieving a 26 g/L titer. Following purification, βKA imparts an increase of 69°C above the nylon-6,6 glass transition temperature and 20% reduced water permeability, equivalent to nylon-6,10. Molecular simulations predict that the enhanced thermal properties result from rigidity introduced by the β-ketone. Process analysis predicts that βKA can be produced for US$1.94/kg from sugars, requiring 63% less energy and emitting 43% less greenhouse gases than fossil-based adipic acid. Overall, this study illustrates the potential for βKA to serve as a useful building block for bio-based polymers.

Original languageAmerican English
Article numberArticle No. 100840
Number of pages20
JournalCell Reports Physical Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - 20 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s)

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-2A00-82285


  • biopolymer
  • bioprivileged molecule
  • bioproduct
  • metabolic engineering
  • molecular dynamics
  • nylon
  • polyamide


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