Progress and Outlook of Sn-Pb Mixed Perovskite Solar Cells

Hyemin Lee, Seok Beom Kang, Sangwook Lee, Kai Zhu, Dong Hoe Kim

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10 Scopus Citations


Organic–inorganic hybrid perovskites have revolutionized solar cell research owing to their excellent material properties. Most previous research has been done on Pb-based perovskites. Recently, efforts to discover a Pb-free or Pb-less perovskite material with an ideal bandgap ranging 1.1–1.3 eV have led researchers to investigate Sn–Pb mixed perovskites. Sn–Pb mixed perovskites have a bandgap of ~ 1.25 eV, which is suitable for high-efficiency single-junction and perovskite/perovskite tandem solar cells. Moreover, the Pb content of Sn–Pb mixed perovskites is 50–60% lower than that of Pb-based perovskites, partially mitigating the Pb toxicity issue. However, incorporating Sn2+ into the crystal structure also causes various drawbacks, such as inhomogeneous thin film morphologies, easy oxidation of Sn2+, and more vulnerable surface properties. Researchers have made substantial progress in addressing these challenges through improvements in compositional design, structural optimization, precursor design, and surface treatments. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the progress in Sn–Pb mixed perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, we analyze the key variables and trends as well as provide an outlook for future directions in the research on Sn–Pb mixed perovskites. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].

Original languageAmerican English
Article number27
Number of pages16
JournalNano Convergence
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).

NREL Publication Number

  • NREL/JA-5900-86225


  • Low bandgap
  • Mixed tin–lead
  • Narrow bandgap
  • Perovskite solar cells
  • Sn–Pb mixed perovskite
  • Tandem solar cells


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